3) Persistent Drought:
One-third of the geographical area in India is either drought or flood prone. Because of the dominance of the monsoon, India’s climate and weather exhibit the heaviest seasonal concentration of precipitation in the world.
Almost 20% of India’s total land area is drought prone. The frequency of droughts has been increasing over time: there were six droughts between 1900 and 1950 compared to 12 in the following 50 years, and 3 droughts have already occurred since the beginning o f the 21st century. Escalating levels of ecological degradation, resulting from such factors as deforestation, receding water tables and overgrazing, have increased the vulnerability of ecosystems to drought.
India has a long history of addressing droughts. The immediate consequence of drought is a predictable and often precipitous decline in agricultural production and income. This ignites an ominous chain of events – indebtedness, distress sales, asset depletion, and deteriorating health - all of which perpetuate poverty and deprivation in the country.